The Relationship Between Pediatric Sleep Disordered Breathing and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Dr. Buddy Donaldson
Dual Trained Specialist in Pediatric Dentisty and Orthodontics
Board Certified in Orthodontics
ADA, LDA, and Acadiana District Dental Association Member
The physiologic role of oxygen for overall health is often underappreciated and underrated. The lack of or difficulty in receiving the proper amount of oxygen creates negative consequences as the human body does not physiologically respond positively to increased respiratory effort. If the roadblocks, bottlenecks, and chokepoints of labored breathing are removed or altered, it will result in improved daily functioning. The signs, symptoms, and phenotypic expressions of pediatric sleep disordered breathing (PSDB) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) are similar. It is the aim of this literature review to increase awareness of the connection between PSDB and AD/HD, and discuss available treatment options to reduce the effects of these two disorders.
Pediatric Sleep Disordered Breathing (PSDB)
The nasal airway begins at the nares and extends to the superior end of the trachea. (1) The oral airway begins at the lips and extends to the superior end of the trachea. When the flow of air is encumbered, it creates increased resistance, which results in a number of medical conditions. In the pediatric population, a condition known as PSDB may develop.
PSDB is a broad term that encompasses multiple conditions that fully or partially attempt to define it. Some of these include obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which involves, snoring, hypopneas, apneas; upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS); and respiratory effort related arousals (RERAS); and respiratory disturbance index (RDI). There are other names associated with PSDB, depending on the author’s nomenclature system.